Agnosia: disturbances in the recognition or perception of familiar information

Alexia: the loss of the ability to read

Amusia: the loss of musical ability

Anomia: inability to remember or find words

Anosognosia: near total failure to recognize a neurologic deficit or disease

Aphasia: impairment or loss of the faculty to use or understand spoken or written language

Apraxia: disturbance in the organization of movements including the inability to perform purposeful movements on command

Bilateral Damage: damage to both sides of the brain

Brain Stem: a section of the brain consisting of the midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata

Catastrophic Reaction: extreme and disruptive transient emotional disturbance

Central Nervous System (CNS): the brain and the spinal cord

Cerebral Cortex: the thin layer of grey matter that covers the surface of the cerebral hemispheres

Cerebrum: the portion of the brain which is composed of two hemispheres united by the corpus callosum; it occupies the whole upper part of the cranium and includes the telencephalon (endbrain), diencephalon, basal ganglia, and rhinencephalon (olfactory brain)

Closed Head Injury: the traumatization (by blow, shaking, etc.) of the brain where the skull has not been penetrated or broken through

Coagulate: to change from a liquid state into a clot or jelly, as blood

Commissures: horizontal (lateral) strands of nerve fiber connections

Compensation: the circumvention of impairments that have arisen without necessarily producing an improvement in capacity

Computerized Tomography (CT): a neuroimaging procedure utilizing X-ray employed to reveal detailed structure of the brain

Concussion: traumatically induced alteration of mental status, characterized by immediate and transient impairment of neural function not necessarily with loss of consciousness

Constructional Apraxia: deficit in ability to draw a copy from a model

Contractures: shortening or distortion of muscular tissue due to spasm, scar or paralysis of the antagonist of the contracting muscle; characterized by spasm

Contrecoup: the point opposite the point of impact

Corpus Callosum: the great transverse commissure of white matter deep in the longitudinal fissure that connects the cerebral hemispheres

CT scan: cranial computed tomography is a radiological procedure whereby images of brain sections are generated

Diencephalon: the part of the cerebrum which includes the thalamus, hypothalamus, subthalamus, and epithalamus

Discourse: contextual, narrative and conversational language

Dressing Apraxia: inability to orient to and place clothing on one’s body

Dysarthria: articulation disorders

Dysphagia: difficulty in swallowing

Dyspraxia: inability to perform coordinated movements

Echolalia: repetition of words spoken by others

Epilepsy: a disorder involving abnormal electrical activity generated within the brain

Facial Agnosia: inability to recognize familiar faces

Fasciculi: fiber bundles or tracts of groups of neurons in the central nervous system which act as connections or pathways

Glial Cell: a type of brain cell which supports and expedites the activity of neurons

Hemiparesis: weakness on one side of the body

Hypoxia: a deficiency of oxygen reaching tissues of the body whether due to environmental deficiency or impaired respiratory and circulatory organs

Incontinence: unable to hold back bodily discharges or evacuations

Mutism: total abolition of speech

Palilalia: automatic repetition of one’s own words

Paralysis: a loss or impairment of sensation and/or muscle function

Paresis: partial motor paralysis

Paresthesia: abnormal sensations such as prickling, itching, tingling, burning

Penetrating Head Injury: penetrating beyond the surface of the skull (Brain)

Plasticity: the ability of the nervous system to recover a function after damage has caused the loss of it

Positron (Dual Photon) Emission Tomography (PET): a dynamic neuroimaging procedure which reveals functional activity in the brain

Posttraumatic Amnesia (PTA): a form of transient memory disruption following TBI in which one loses the inability to retain any information from one moment to the next

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): a set of specific symptoms (such as intrusive recollections, nightmares, or anxiety about a traumatic event) which follow exposure to a psychologically distressing event outside the range of usual human experience

Rehabilitation: restoration to a condition of good health, or former capacity

Restoration: renewal or revival of lost capacity or function often by exercises, drills, or repetitive practice

Retrograde Amnesia: the inability to recall information from time prior to injury

Seizure: a sudden, transient disturbance of cerebral function due to abnormal neuronal discharge of the brain, as of epilepsy or neuralgia

Shock: a collapse of circulatory function characterized by pallor, sweating, weak pulse, and very low blood pressure

Single Photon Emission Computerized Tomography (SPECT): a dynamic neuroimaging procedure which reveals functional activity in the brain

Sleep: an active state of the brain controlled by elaborate and precise mechanisms in the brain stem

Somatosensory: body sensation

Sonophobia: the fear or avoidance of sound or noise

Spasm: sudden, violent, involuntary contraction of a muscle or groups of muscles attended by pain and interference with function, producing involuntary movement and distortion

Spasticity: characterized by spasm

Spatial Agnosia: disorientation with respect to locations and spatial relationships

Thromboembolism: stopping up of a vein or artery by blood clot

Tomography: radiographic (diagnostic X-ray) process by which the image of a selected body section (plane) is produced using the linear or curved motion of the x-ray tube and film cassette; the images of all other planes are out of focus and blurred due to their relative displacement on the film

Vigilance: the capacity to sustain behavior over time

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